ISO 21448:2022
ISO 21448:2022



This document provides a general argument framework and guidance on measures to ensure the safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF), which is the absence of unreasonable risk due to a hazard caused by functional insufficiencies, i.e.:

a) the insufficiencies of specification of the intended functionality at the vehicle level; or

b) the insufficiencies of specification or performance insufficiencies in the implementation of electric and/or electronic (E/E) elements in the system.

This document provides guidance on the applicable design, verification and validation measures, as well as activities during the operation phase, that are needed to achieve and maintain the SOTIF.

This document is applicable to intended functionalities where proper situational awareness is essential to safety and where such situational awareness is derived from complex sensors and processing algorithms, especially functionalities of emergency intervention systems and systems having levels of driving automation from 1 to 5[2].

This document is applicable to intended functionalities that include one or more E/E systems installed in series production road vehicles, excluding mopeds.

Reasonably foreseeable misuse is in the scope of this document. In addition, operation or assistance of a vehicle by a remote user or communication with a back office that can affect vehicle decision making is in scope of this document when it can lead to safety hazards.

This document does not apply to:

—    faults covered by the ISO 26262 series;

—    cybersecurity threats;

—    hazards directly caused by the system technology (e.g. eye damage from the beam of a lidar);

—    hazards related to electric shock, fire, smoke, heat, radiation, toxicity, flammability, reactivity, release of energy and similar hazards, unless directly caused by the intended functionality of E/E systems; and

—    deliberate actions that clearly violate the system’s intended use, (which are considered feature abuse).

This document is not intended for functions of existing systems for which well-established and well-trusted design, verification and validation (V&V) measures exist (e.g. dynamic stability control systems, airbags).

General information 

  •  : Published
     : 2022-06
  •  : 1
     : 181
  •  : ISO/TC 22/SC 32 Electrical and electronic components and general system aspects
  •  :
    43.040.10 Electrical and electronic equipment

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